The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied unless otherwise stated.
The Fund’s functional and presentation currency is the Euro. All amounts are in thousands of euros, unless otherwise stated. The financial year 2014 was a normal calendar year from 1 January to 31 December 2014.
2.1 Basis of preparation
Statement of compliance
In accordance with Part 9, Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code, Section 362, subsection 8, the financial statements of the Fund have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the European Union. The financial statements of the Fund presented are also in accordance with Part 9, Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code based on Section 362, subsection 8 and 9.
Statement of comprehensive income
The Fund presents its statement of comprehensive income by nature of expenses.
Application of new and revised International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
In 2014, the Fund did not adopt any new or amended standards and does not plan the early adoption of any of the standards issued but not yet effective.
Below is a list of the amendments to IFRSs and the new Interpretations that are mandatorily effective for accounting periods that begin on or after 1 January 2014.
- IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements
- IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements
- IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities
- Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27 Investment Entities;
- Amendments to IAS 32 Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities;
- Amendments to IAS 36 Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets;
- Amendments to IAS 39 Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting; and
- IFRIC 21 Levies.
IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements
This standard applies to financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2014, and identifies the concept of control as the determining factor in whether an entity should be included in the consolidated financial statements of the parent company. The standard provides additional guidance to assist in the determination of control where this is difficult to assess. The standard has had no impact on the financial statements of the Fund.
IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements
This standard applies to financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2014, and provides a reflection of joint arrangements by focusing on the rights and obligations of the arrangement rather than its legal form. The standard requires a single method to account for interests in jointly controlled entities. The standard has had no impact on the financial statements of the Fund.
IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities
This standard applies to financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2014, and provides disclosure requirements for all forms of interests in other entities, including joint arrangements, associations, special purpose vehicles and other off-balance sheet vehicles. The standard has had no impact on the financial statements of the Fund.
Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27 Investment Entities
The amendments to IFRS 10 define an investment entity and introduce an exception from the requirement to consolidate subsidiaries for an investment entity. In terms of the exception, an investment entity is required to measure its interests in subsidiaries at fair value through profit or loss. The exception does not apply to subsidiaries of investment entities that provide services that relate to the investment entity’s investment activities. Consequential amendments to IFRS 12 and IAS 27 have been made to introduce new disclosure requirements for investment entities. As the Fund is not an investment entity, the application of the amendments has had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognised in the Fund's financial statements.
Amendments to IAS 32 Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
The amendments to IAS 32 clarify the requirements relating to the offset of financial assets and financial liabilities. Specifically, the amendments clarify the meaning of ‘currently has a legally enforceable right of set-off’ and ‘simultaneous realisation and settlement’. As the Fund does not have any financial assets and financial liabilities that qualify for offset, the application of the amendments has had no impact on the disclosures or on the amounts recognised in the Fund’s financial statements.
Amendments to IAS 36 Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets
The amendments to IAS 36 remove the requirement to disclose the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit (CGU) to which goodwill or other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives had been allocated when there has been no impairment or reversal of impairment of the related CGU. Furthermore, the amendments introduce additional disclosure requirements applicable to when the recoverable amount of an asset or a CGU is measured at fair value less costs of disposal. These new disclosures include the fair value hierarchy, key assumptions and valuation techniques used which are in line with the disclosure required by IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurements. The application of these amendments has had no material impact on the disclosures in the Fund’s financial statements.
Amendments to IAS 39 Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting
The amendments to IAS 39 provide relief from the requirement to discontinue hedge accounting when a derivative designated as a hedging instrument is novated under certain circumstances. The amendments also clarify that any change to the fair value of the derivative designated as a hedging instrument arising from the novation should be included in the assessment and measurement of hedge effectiveness. As the Fund does not have any derivatives that are subject to novation, the application of these amendments has had no impact on the disclosures or on the amounts recognised in the Fund’s financial statements.
IFRIC 21 Levies
IFRIC 21 addresses the issue of when to recognise a liability to pay a levy. The Interpretation defines a levy, and specifies that the obligating event that gives rise to the liability is the activity that triggers the payment of the levy, as identified by legislation. The Interpretation provides guidance on how different levy arrangements should be accounted for, in particular, it clarifies that neither economic compulsion nor the going concern basis of financial statements preparation implies that an entity has a present obligation to pay a levy that will be triggered by operating in a future period. The application of this Interpretation has had no material impact on the disclosures or on the amounts recognised in the Fund’s financial statements.
New and amended standards and interpretations, effective for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2015
Standards issued but not yet effective
Standards issued but not yet effective up to the date of the issuance of the Fund’s financial statements are listed below:
- IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, effective 1 January 2018
- IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, effective 1 January 2017
- Amendments to IFRS 11 Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations, effective 1 January 2016
- Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38 Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortisation, effective 1 January 2016
- Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41 Agriculture: Bearer Plants, effective 1 January 2016
- Amendments to IAS 19 Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions, effective 1 July 2014
- Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010-2012 Cycle, effective 1 July 2014
- Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2011-2013 Cycle, effective 1 July 2014
The Fund has studied the improvements and is currently assessing their impact.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
IFRS 9 issued in November 2009 introduced new requirements for the classification and measurement of financial assets. IFRS 9 was subsequently amended in October 2010 to include requirements for the classification and measurement of financial liabilities and for derecognition, and in November 2013 to include the new requirements for general hedge accounting. Another revised version of IFRS 9 was issued in July 2014 mainly to include a) impairment requirements for financial assets and b) limited amendments to the classification and measurement requirements by introducing a ‘fair value through other comprehensive income’ (FVTOCI) measurement category for certain simple debt instruments. The Fund does not expect any impact on its financial position or performance.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
In May 2014, IFRS 15 was issued which establishes a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers. IFRS 15 will supersede the current revenue recognition guidance including IAS 18 Revenue, IAS 11 Construction Contracts and the related Interpretations when it becomes effective. The core principle of IFRS 15 is that an entity should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Specifically, the Standard introduces a 5-step approach to revenue recognition:
- Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer.
- Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract.
- Step 3: Determine the transaction price.
- Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.
- Step 5: Recognise revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
Under IFRS 15, an entity recognises revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied, i.e. when ‘control’ of the goods or services underlying the particular performance obligation is transferred to the customer. Far more prescriptive guidance has been added in IFRS 15 to deal with specific scenarios. Furthermore, extensive disclosures are required by IFRS 15. The Fund is assessing the potential impact on its financial statements resulting from the application of IFRS 15.
Amendments to IFRS 11 Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations
The amendments to IFRS 11 provide guidance on how to account for the acquisition of an interest in a joint operation in which the activities constitute a business as defined in IFRS 3 Business Combinations. Specifically, the amendments state that the relevant principles on accounting for business combinations in IFRS 3 and other standards (e.g. IAS 36 Impairment of Assets regarding impairment testing of a cash-generating unit to which goodwill on acquisition of a joint operation has been allocated) should be applied. The same requirements should be applied to the formation of a joint operation if and only if an existing business is contributed to the joint operation by one of the parties that participate in the joint operation. The directors of the Fund do not anticipate that the application of these amendments to IFRS 11 will have a material impact on the Fund's financial statements.
Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38 Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortisation
The amendments to IAS 16 prohibit entities from using a revenue-based depreciation method for items of property, plant and equipment. The amendments to IAS 38 introduce a rebuttable presumption that revenue is not an appropriate basis for amortisation of an intangible asset. The directors of the Fund do not anticipate that the application of these amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38 will have a material impact on the Fund’s financial statements.
Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41 Agriculture: Bearer Plants
The amendments to IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 41 Agriculture define a bearer plant and require biological assets that meet the definition of a bearer plant to be accounted for as property, plant and equipment in accordance with IAS 16, instead of IAS 41. In terms of the amendments, bearer plants can be measured using either the cost model or the revaluation model set out in IAS 16. The directors of the Fund do not anticipate that the application of these amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41 will have a material impact on the Fund's financial statements as the Fund is not engaged in agricultural activities.
Amendments to IAS 19 Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions
The amendments to IAS 19 clarify how an entity should account for contributions made by employees or third parties that are linked to services to defined benefit plans, based on whether those contributions are dependent on the number of years of service provided by the employee.
For contributions that are independent of the number of years of service, the entity may either recognise the contributions as a reduction of the service cost in the period in which the related service is rendered, or to attribute them to the employees’ periods of service either using the plan’s contribution formula or on a straight-line basis; whereas for contributions that are dependent on the number of years of service, the entity is required to attribute them to the employees’ periods of service. The Fund is assessing the potential impact on its financial statements resulting from the amendments to IAS 19.
Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010 – 2012 Cycle
The Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010-2012 Cycle include a number of amendments to various IFRSs, which are summarised below.
The amendments to IFRS 2 (i) change the definitions of ‘vesting condition’ and ‘market condition’; and (ii) add definitions for ‘performance condition’ and ‘service condition’ which were previously included within the definition of ‘vesting condition’. The amendments to IFRS 2 are effective for share-based payment transactions for which the grant date is on or after 1 July 2014.
The amendments to IFRS 3 clarify that contingent consideration that is classified as an asset or a liability should be measured at fair value at each reporting date, irrespective of whether the contingent consideration is a financial instrument within the scope of IFRS 9 or IAS 39 or a non-financial asset or liability. Changes in fair value (other than measurement period adjustments) should be recognised in profit or loss. The amendments to IFRS 3 are effective for business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after 1 July 2014.
The amendments to IFRS 8 (i) require an entity to disclose the judgements made by management in applying the aggregation criteria to operating segments, including a description of the operating segments aggregated and the economic indicators assessed in determining whether the operating segments have ‘similar economic characteristics’; and (ii) clarify that a reconciliation of the total of the reportable segments’ assets to the entity’s assets should only be provided if the segment assets are regularly provided to the chief operating decision-maker.
The amendments to the basis for conclusions of IFRS 13 clarify that the issue of IFRS 13 and consequential amendments to IAS 39 and IFRS 9 did not remove the ability to measure short-term receivables and payables with no stated interest rate at their invoice amounts without discounting, if the effect of discounting is immaterial. As the amendments do not contain any effective date, they are considered to be immediately effective.
The amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38 remove perceived inconsistencies in the accounting for accumulated depreciation/amortisation when an item of property, plant and equipment or an intangible asset is revalued. The amended standards clarify that the gross carrying amount is adjusted in a manner consistent with the revaluation of the carrying amount of the asset and that accumulated depreciation/amortisation is the difference between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount after taking into account accumulated impairment losses.
The amendments to IAS 24 clarify that a management entity providing key management personnel services to a reporting entity is a related party of the reporting entity. Consequently, the reporting entity should disclose as related party transactions the amounts incurred for the service paid or payable to the management entity for the provision of key management personnel services. However, disclosure of the components of such compensation is not required.
The Fund is assessing the potential impact on its financial statements resulting from the annual improvements.
Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2011 – 2013 Cycle
The Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2011-2013 Cycle include a number of amendments to various IFRSs, which are summarised below.
The amendments to IFRS 3 clarify that the standard does not apply to the accounting for the formation of all types of joint arrangement in the financial statements of the joint arrangement itself.
The amendments to IFRS 13 clarify that the scope of the portfolio exception for measuring the fair value of a group of financial assets and financial liabilities on a net basis includes all contracts that are within the scope of, and accounted for in accordance with, IAS 39 or IFRS 9, even if those contracts do not meet the definitions of financial assets or financial liabilities within IAS 32.
The amendments to IAS 40 clarify that IAS 40 and IFRS 3 are not mutually exclusive and application of both standards may be required. Consequently, an entity acquiring investment property must determine whether:
(1.) the property meets the definition of investment property in terms of IAS 40; and
(2.) the transaction meets the definition of a business combination under IFRS 3.
The Fund is assessing the potential impact on its financial statements resulting from the annual improvements.
Preparation of the financial statements
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for investment property and investment property under construction, that are measured at fair value, as explained in the accounting policies below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for assets. The principal accounting policies are set out below.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires management to exercise its judgement in the process of applying the Fund’s accounting policies. Changes in assumptions may have a significant impact on the financial statements in the period the assumptions changed. Management believes that the underlying assumptions are appropriate. The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the financial statements, are disclosed in Note 4.
2.2 Investment property
Investment property under construction or being developed for future use as investment property is presented under ‘Investment property under construction’.
Land held under operating leases is classified and accounted for by the Fund as investment property when it meets the rest of the definition of investment property and is accounted for as a finance lease.
Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs, such as advisory costs, notary costs, transfer taxes and borrowing costs. Borrowing costs incurred for the purpose of acquiring, constructing or producing a qualifying investment property are capitalised as part of its cost. Borrowing costs are capitalised while acquisition or construction is actively underway and cease once the asset is substantially complete, or suspended if the development of the asset is suspended.
After initial recognition, investment property is stated at fair value. Fair value is based on active market prices, adjusted, if necessary, for any difference in the nature, location or condition of the specific asset.
In line with the Practice Statements, as incorporated in the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Appraisal and Valuation Standards (‘the Red Book’), valuations are performed as of the financial position date by professional valuation experts who hold recognised and relevant professional qualifications and have recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued. These valuations form the basis for the carrying amounts in the financial statements. Investment property that is being redeveloped for continuing use as an investment property or for which the market has become less active continues to be measured at fair value.
The fair value of investment property reflects, among other things, rental income from current leases and assumptions about rental income from future leases in the light of current market conditions, including vacancy and rental incentives. The fair value also reflects, on a similar basis, any cash outflows that could be expected in respect of the property. Some of those outflows are recognised as a liability, including finance lease liabilities in respect of leasehold land classified as investment property; others, including contingent rent payments, are not recognised in the financial statements.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised to the asset’s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Fund and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised.
If a valuation obtained for a property held under a lease is net of all payments expected to be made, any related lease liability recognised separately in the statement of financial position is added back to arrive at the carrying value of the investment property for accounting purposes.
The fair value of investment property does not reflect future capital expenditure that will improve or enhance the property and does not reflect the related future benefits from this future expenditure other than those a rational market participant would take into account when determining the value of the property.
Gains and losses arising from changes in fair values are included in the statement of comprehensive income in the year in which they arise. Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed of or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from its disposal. Gains and losses on disposal of investment properties are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income in the year of disposal.
In the fair value assessment of the investment property the potential effect on future cash flow with respect to granted lease incentives are taken into consideration.
2.3 Investment property under construction
Investment property under construction for future use as investment property is stated at fair value.
Fair value measurement on investment property under construction is only applied if the fair value is considered to be reliably measurable. If the Fund determines that the fair value of an investment property under construction is not reliably determinable when construction is incomplete, it shall measure that investment under construction at cost until either its fair value becomes reliably determinable or construction is completed.
It may sometimes be difficult to determine the fair value of the investment property under construction reliably. In order to evaluate whether the fair value of an investment under construction can be determined reliably, management considers, among other, the following factors:
- The provisions of the construction contract
- The stage of completion
- Whether the project/property is standard (typical for the market) or non-standard
- The level of reliability of cash inflows after completion
- The development risk specific to the property
- Past experience with similar construction projects
- Pre-let percentage
- Status of construction permits
Starting one year before completion of the project, an external valuation expert values the project twice a year. Gains and losses arising from changes in fair values are included in the statement of comprehensive income in the year in which they arise.
The Office Fund has an agreement with Bouwinvest Development B.V. Investment property is not developed within the Office Fund but within Bouwinvest Development B.V. When entering into the contract, the rental risk is transferred to the Fund; the remaining risks remain with the developer. The paid instalments are therefore recognised as investment property under construction.
2.4 Other non-current receivables
Other non-current receivables relate to VAT compensation.
2.5 Financial instruments
Financial assets are classified as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, loans and receivables, held-to-maturity financial assets, and available-for-sale financial assets, as appropriate. The Fund determines the classification of its financial assets at initial recognition. When financial assets are initially recognised, they are measured at fair value, plus, in the case of investments not at fair value through profit or loss, directly attributable transaction costs. Financial assets are derecognised only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or the Fund transfers substantially all risks and rewards of ownership. The Office Fund’s financial assets consist of loans and receivables.
Financial assets recognised in the statement of financial position as trade and other receivables are classified as loans and receivables. They are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment.
The Fund assesses at each financial position date whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If there is objective evidence (such as significant financial difficulty of the obligor, breach of contract, or it becomes probable that the debtor will enter bankruptcy) the asset is tested for impairment. The amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future expected credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate (that is, the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition). The carrying amount of the asset is reduced through use of an allowance account. The amount of the loss is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
With respect to trade receivables, a provision for impairment is made when there is objective evidence (such as the probability of insolvency or significant financial difficulties of the debtor) that the Fund will not be able to collect all of the amounts due under the original terms of the invoice. Impaired debts are derecognised when they are assessed as uncollectible.
If in a subsequent period the amount of the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed, to the extent that the carrying value of the asset does not exceed its amortised cost at the reversal date. Any subsequent reversal of an impairment loss is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
Financial liabilities are classified as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans, held-to-maturity financial liabilities, and available-for-sale financial liabilities, as appropriate. The Fund determines the classification of its financial liabilities at initial recognition. When financial liabilities are initially recognised, they are measured at fair value, plus, in the case of investments not at fair value through profit or loss, directly attributable transaction costs.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expired.
Financial liabilities included in trade and other payables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently at amortised cost. The fair value of a non-interest bearing liability is its discounted repayment amount. If the due date of the liability is less than one year, discounting is omitted.
Prepayments are stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.
2.7 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, and bank overdrafts.
2.8 Issued capital
Shares are classified as equity when there is no obligation to transfer cash or other assets. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.
2.9 Trade and other payables
Trade and other payables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
The Fund obtains deposits from tenants as a guarantee for the return of the property at the end of the lease term in a specified good condition or for the lease payments for a period ranging from 1 to 12 months. Such deposits are treated as financial assets in accordance with IAS 39 and they are initially recognised at fair value. The deposit is subsequently measured at amortised cost.
Tenant deposits are classified as current liabilities unless the Fund has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the deposit for at least 12 months after the date of the statement of financial position.
2.10 Dividend distribution
Dividend distribution to the Fund’s shareholders is recognised as a liability in the Fund’s financial statements in the period in which the dividends are approved.
2.11 Rental income
Rental income from investment property leased out under operating leases is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives granted by the Fund to its tenants are recognised as an integral part of the total rental income. The lease incentives are included in the investment property. Incentives to enter into lease agreements are spread evenly over the lease term, even if the payments are not made on such a basis. The lease term is the non-cancellable period of the lease, together with any further term for which the tenant has the option to continue the lease, when at the inception of the lease it is reasonably certain that the tenant will exercise this option.
Premiums received to terminate leases are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income when they arise.
2.12 Service charges, property operating expenses and administrative expenses
In the case of service contracts with third parties, service charges are recovered from tenants.
Service charges in respect of vacant property are expensed. These mainly relate to gas, water, electricity, cleaning and security. Property operating expenses comprise those costs that are directly attributable to the operation of properties, net of costs charged to tenants. These mainly relate to tax, insurance, leasehold, maintenance and professional fees. These are expensed as incurred. Administrative expenses are expenses that are not directly attributable to the operation of properties (including charged management costs not directly related to properties, office overheads, advice, valuation and audit fees, listing costs and marketing and promotion costs).
Service charges for which the Fund acts as a principal are presented in the statement of comprehensive income. Therefore, for those property investments for which the Fund is in full control of the service charges, the service charges invoiced to tenants and the corresponding expenses are shown separately on an accrual basis.
2.13 Finance income and expenses
Finance income consists of interest income and is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income. Interest income is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income as it accrues.
2.14 Cash flow statement
Cash flows are stated according to the direct method. The premise for operating cash flows is rental income, to which adjustments are made to obtain the net operating cash flows.
The acquisitions of investment properties are disclosed as cash flows from investment activities, as this reflects the Fund’s business activities most appropriately.
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, demand deposits, short-term deposits in banks with original maturities of three months or less and short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
2.15 Earnings per share
The Fund presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) for its ordinary share capital. The earnings per ordinary share are calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to the Fund’s shareholders by the weighted average number of issued ordinary shares during the reporting period. In calculating the diluted earnings per share, the profit or loss attributable to the Fund’s shareholders and the weighted average number of issued ordinary shares during the reporting period are adjusted for all potential dilutive effects on the ordinary shares.
2.16 Income taxes
Based on its status as an FII , the Fund is subject to Dutch corporate income tax at a rate of 0%, see Note 10.